Gatyla (Garden Typha latifolia): Strategies for Increasing Remediation of Water in Active Waste Industrial Estates
The development of globalization flows such as the development of industrial estates in Indonesia has developed rapidly and is able to bring major changes to environmental conditions in general.
The Industrial Estate Association (HKI) noted, Up to 1994 for example, the number of industrial estates recorded in the Association of Industrial Estates (HKI) was as many as 146 locations with a total land area of 42,019 Ha which was mostly spread in West Java (21,289 Ha) and Jakarta city (3,064 Ha).
In essence, the development of industrial estates is expected to be able to have a positive impact on economic, social and environmental aspects.
However, it cannot be denied that the current industrial development has the opposite effect.
The problem of pollution of industrial waste into the environment is one example.
Based on data reported by kemenperin.go.id, there are at least 232 industrial wastes in Indonesia with a total area of around 78,976 hectares (kemenperin.go.id source).
The industrial waste will actually continue to increase, along with the ongoing program of industrial downstream and improving economic performance.
If the problem is left continuously then it will have implications for the pollution of the environment and disturb the ecosystem of other living things, plus the many heavy metal compounds that further compound the content of the compound in the water.
According to Palar (2004), that water bodies have been contaminated with compounds/ Pb ions (lead) so that the amount of Pb in the body of the water exceeds the proper concentration. This can lead to the death of these aquatic biotas.
Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 115 of 2003 concerning Guidelines for Determining Water Quality Status, the quality standard of Pb in water is 0.03 ppm.
If the Pb concentration reaches 188 mg, many fish will be killed.
If in a body of water where the biota is dissolved in Pb at a concentration of 2.75-49 mg/ l and is exposed for 245 hours, the Crustacea will die, whereas at the dissolved Pb concentration it is 3.5-64 mg / l which is exposed to 168 -336 hours, Insecta will die.
Meanwhile, the cause of death of Insect and Crustacea was because Insect and Crustaceans were unable to absorb heavy metals in the chemical content in the waste.
Therefore, it takes water plants that have high resistance to being able to degrade the heavy metal content and be able to live on the surface of the soil which has been contaminated by heavy metals and wastes around the industrial area.
The results of this study were supported by FAO (2010) which showed that the concentration of heavy metal zinc (Zn) content on soil with a certain level showed an increase in growth in T. latifolia.
Therefore, so that pollution to the environment does not occur continuously, innovation is needed in the use of plants as phytoremediation agents to improve water remediation.
Innovation in the utilization of these plants can be done through the Gatyla (Garden Typha latifolia) program, which is a program that makes aquatic plants Tifa (Typha latifolia) around the river banks of industrial waste as one form of Waste Water Treatment Plants (IPAL) for industries and factories and communities.
The Gatyla Program (Garden Typha latifolia) can also be used as a phytoremediation agent in maintaining an environmental ecosystem.
The method applied in Gatyla is a field observation method and phytoremediation method.
The field observation method is carried out in an area that allows for the construction of a plantation area of water tifa plants (Typha latifolia) along the upstream-downstream of the river which is actively fed by industrial waste.
The plantation management system of water tifa (Typha latifolia) plants will later be planted by aquatic plants tifa (Typha latifolia) in the middle of a longitudinal river with the same diameter and size so that it will form like tifa barriers (Typha latifolia) along the river which aims as a wastewater biofilter.
The nature of this water plant is that it is able to live on land with pools of mud and soil contaminated by heavy metals.
Based on the above, this plant can be used as a bio-indicator in monitoring environments contaminated by heavy metals.
In order to obtain more optimal results, a phytoremediation method is needed in order to facilitate the improvement of remediation in order to realize the plantations of air tifa plants (Typha latifolia) around the banks of the river industry.
In the process of increasing remediation, plants can be active or passive in degrading pollutant materials.
There are those who carry out the transformation process, phytoextraction (retrieval and recovery of contaminants in underground biomass), phytovolatilization, fitodegradation, phytostabilization (stabilizing waste areas with control of removal and evapotranspiration), and rhizofiltration (filtering heavy metals into root systems) (Surtikanti 2011).
These six processes are distinguished based on physical and biological processes.
Meanwhile, passively plants do biofilter, transfer oxygen, produce carbon, and create environmental conditions (habitat) for microbial growth.
This can be supported by increasing improvement in growing media and the availability of soil microbes to improve efficiency in the process of degradation of polluted pollutants.
The degradation process can be carried out using the phytoremediation method.
The phytoremediation method is a process that uses plants to restore soil and water that has been polluted by pollutants and heavy metal compounds (Surtikanti 2011).
The phytoremediation method is very simple, namely pollutants are degraded by bacteria, fungi, and other organisms to produce inorganic substances with simpler structures.
The results of the decomposition of organic matter into inorganic are absorbed by plants and through metabolic processes used for the growth of organs such as roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruit (Evasari 2012).
The phytoremediation method has also developed rapidly because this method is considered to have several advantages, one of which is relatively cheap when compared to conventional methods of cost so that it can save output activities by 75-85% (Surakusumah 2010).
Basically, the decomposition results used for plant growth will trigger an increase in the remediation of industrial wastewater.
By combining these methods in synergy, it is expected that the Gatyla (Garden Typha latifolia) program can be immediately applied to the scope of the Society-Industry in improving water quality and productivity of watersheds in Indonesia.
In addition, this program is able to become a forum for all beginning parties from the government, the private sector, and the community are working together to support the development of the Gatyla (Garden Typha latifolia) program in order to empty Indonesia in enhancing the conservation of water resources.
“Gatyla (Garden Typha latifolia), which is a program that makes aquatic plants tifa
(Typha latifolia) around the river banks of industrial waste as one form of Waste Water
Treatment Plants (WWTPs) for industries and factories and communities.”- Deasy
Evasari J. 2012. Utilization of artificial wetlands by using typha latifolia plants to manage domestic
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latifolia) in the Process of Phytoremediation [internet]. Accessed from http://tekniklingkunganusm.
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Palar H. 2004. Metal Pollution and Toxicology. Jakarta (ID): Rineka Cipta.
Schnoor J L. 1997. Uptake and Metabolism of Atrazine by Popular Trees. Environmental Science and
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SurakusumahW. 2010. Phytoremediation and sustainable development [internet].
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Fitoremediasi_dan_pm% 20bangunan_berkelanjut.p df. (October 23, 2017).
Surtikanti, H.K. 2011. Environmental Toxicology and Biological Test Method. Bandung (ID): Rizqi